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Electrical stimulation enhances tissue reorganization during orthodontic tooth movement in rats
The rate and the type of orthodontic tooth movement is influenced by bone turnover in a rat model
The effects of electrical current from a micro-electrical device on tooth movement

Korean J Orthod. 2008 Oct;38(5):337-346. Korean.
Published online October 30, 2008. https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2008.38.5.337
Copyright © 2008 Korean Association of Orthodontists
The effects of electrical current from a micro-electrical device on tooth movement
Dong-Hwan Kim, DDS, MSD,a Young-Guk Park, DDS, MSD, PhD,b and Seung-Gu Kang, DDS, MSD, PhDc
aPrivate practice.
bProfessor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Korea.
cAssistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Korea.

Corresponding author: Young-Guk Park. Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, 1, Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-702, Korea. +82 2 958 9310; Email: ygpark@khu.ac.kr
Received September 01, 2006; Revised May 30, 2008; Accepted June 03, 2008.

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Abstract

Objective
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an exogenous electric current to the alveolar bone surrounding a tooth being orthodontically treated can enhance tooth movement in human and to verify the effect of electric currents on tooth movement in a clinical aspect.

Methods
This study was performed on 7 female orthodontic patients. The electric appliance was set in the maxilla to provide a direct electric current of 20 µA. The maxillary canine on one side was assigned as the experimental side, and the other as control. The experimental canine was provided with orthodontic force and electric current. The control side was given orthodontic force only. Electrical current was applied to experimental canines for 5 hours a day. The amount of canine movement was measured with an electronic caliper every week.

Results
The amount of orthodontic tooth movement in the experimental side during 4 weeks was greater by 30% compared to that of the control side. The amount of increase in tooth movement in the experimental side was statistically significant. The amount of tooth movement in the experimental side during the first two weeks was greater than that in the following two weeks. The amount of weekly tooth movement in the control side was decreased gradually.

Conclusions
These results suggested that the exogenous electric current from the miniature electric device might accelerate orthodontic tooth movement by one third and have the potential to reduce orthodontic treatment duration.

Keywords: Electric appliance; Tooth movement; Canine retraction

Electrical stimulation enhances tissue reorganization during orthodontic tooth movement in rats
  • Gisele Sampaio Spadari
  • Ewerton Zaniboni
  • Silvia Amelia Scudeler Vedovello
  • Mauro Pedrine Santamaria
  • Maria Esméria Corezola do Amaral
  • Gláucia Maria Tech dos Santos
  • Marcelo Augusto Marretto Esquisatto
  • Fernanda Aparecida Sampaio Mendonca
  • Milton Santamaria-Jr
  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.

Original Article

Abstract

Objective

This study evaluated the effects of a low-intensity electric current on tissue reorganization during experimental orthodontic tooth movement.

Materials and methods

Thirty-two animals were divided into two groups evaluated on days 3 and 7: OTM—orthodontic tooth movement and OTM + MC—orthodontic tooth movement and microcurrent application (10 μA/5 min). The samples were processed for histological, morphometric, and Western blotting analysis.

Results

Analysis of the periodontal ligament (PL) showed a significantly smaller number of granulocytes in the OTM + MC group on day 7.The number of fibroblasts was significantly higher in the OTM + MC group on days 3 and 7. The area of birefringent collagen fibers was more organized in the OTM + MC group on days 3 and 7. The number of blood vessels was significantly higher in the OTM + MC group on day 7. Microcurrent application significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in the compression region of the PL. In the OTM + MC group on day 7 of tooth movement, the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF was significantly reduced whereas the expression of bFGF was increased in PL.

Conclusions

Electrical stimulation enhances tissue responses, reducing the number of granulocytes and increasing the number of fibroblasts, blood vessels, and osteoclasts and modulates the expression of TGF-β1, VEFG, and bFGF.

Clinical relevance

This technique is used in many areas of medicine, but poorly explored in dentistry and orthodontics. This treatment is cheap and non-invasive and can be applied by own orthodontist, and it can improve the treatment with a faster and safe tooth movement, without pain.

Link to article

Effect RANKL Produced by Periodontal Ligament Cells on Orthodontic Tooth Movement
Effect RANKL Produced by Periodontal Ligament Cells on Orthodontic Tooth Movement 
Abstract The bone remodeling process involved in orthodontic tooth movement consists of bone resorption on the compression side and bone formation on the tension side of the teeth. Osteoclasts play an important role in bone remodeling and are necessary for orthodontic tooth movement. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclast formation and differentiation. Several cell types have been reported to be capable of producing RANKL. We are interested in whether there is a dominant cell type which RANKL production is critical in generating orthodontic tooth movement. In this study, we used a Cre recombinase mouse model to study the effect of RANKL deletion in periodontal ligament cells on orthodontic tooth movement. We found RANKL deletion in periodontal ligament cells significantly decreased the amount of orthodontic tooth movement and reduced the number of osteoclasts formed on the compression side after subjecting the teeth to orthodontic force. It suggests RANKL production from periodontal ligament cells contributes greatly to orthodontic tooth movement and serves as an important source of RANKL in osteoclastogenesis during orthodontic tooth movement.

http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1015&context=dental_theses

Local delivery of recombinant osteoprotegerin enhances postorthodontic tooth stability.

Local delivery of recombinant osteoprotegerin enhances postorthodontic tooth stability.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22382900

Clinical Study Korea Results
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the acceleration of tooth movement.

The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the acceleration of tooth movement.

Author information

1
Department of Orthodontics, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

AIM:

Accelerating the speed of orthodontic tooth movement should contribute to the shortening of the treatment period. This study was designed to determine whether a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) affects orthodontic tooth movement.

METHODS:

The canines of one side of 10 patients (mean age 23.0 ± 3.3 years) who needed canine retraction were exposed to a PEMF; the canines on the contralateral sides of the same patients were not similarly exposed. After extraction of the maxillary first premolars, both canines were retracted with coil springs. A circuit and a watch battery were used to generate a PEMF (1 Hz). The generator was embedded in a removable appliance. Foil was used to obstruct the contol group from PEMF exposure. Patients were instructed to use the device from the commencement of canine retraction, and it was removed when Class I canine relationship was achieved in either of the canines after 5.0 ± 0.6 months. The changes in the space between the maxillary canine and first molar were measured to indicate the amount of tooth movement. The canine retraction distances were compared by paired t test. Afterward, the treatment plan was continued.

RESULTS:

With exposure to a PEMF, canine retraction was 1.57 ± 0.83 mm more than the control group (P<.001).

CONCLUSION: THESE FINDINGS SUGGEST THAT APPLICATION OF A PEMF CAN ACCELERATE ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT.

RANKL expressed by osteocytes has an important role in orthodontic tooth movement -- ScienceDaily
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